- Editorial Policies
- Appeals and Complaints
- Authorship Principles
- Dual Use of Research Content
- Competing Interests
- Complementary and Alternative Medicine Standards for Research
- Corrections and Retractions
- Data Availability Statement
- Ethical responsibilities of authors
- Harmful Research Content
- Informed Consent
- Portable Peer Review
- Predatory Journals and References
- Preprint Sharing
- Policy, Process and Guidance for Peer Reviewers
- Removal of Published Content
- Research involving animals, and their data or biological material
- Research Involving Human Participants, their Data or Biological Material
- Research Involving Human Embryos
- Research Involving Palaeontological and Geological Material
- Sex and Gender in Research (SAGER Guidelines)
- Standards of Reporting
- Utilization of plants, algae, fungi
Sex and Gender in Research (SAGER Guidelines)
We encourage our authors to follow the ‘Sex and Gender Equity in Research – SAGER – guidelines’ and to include sex and gender considerations where relevant. Authors should use the terms sex (biological attribute) and gender (shaped by social and cultural circumstances) carefully in order to avoid confusing both terms. Article titles and/or abstracts should indicate clearly what sex(es) the study applies to. Authors should also describe in the background, whether sex and/or gender differences may be expected; report how sex and/or gender were accounted for in the design of the study; provide disaggregated data by sex and/or gender, where appropriate; and discuss respective results. If a sex and/or gender analysis was not conducted, the rationale should be given in the Discussion. We suggest that our authors consult the full guidelines before submission.
Definition of Sex and Gender (taken from Office of Research in Women’s Health, NIH).
Sex - refers to biological differences between females and males, including chromosomes, sex organs, and endogenous hormonal profiles.
Gender- refers to socially constructed and enacted roles and behaviors which occur in a historical and cultural context and vary across societies and over time.
Applications of the guidelines
These guidelines apply to studies involving humans, vertebrate animal and cell lines.